Let’s switch over to processes of nuclear physics. Magicness of some numbers was explained in first chapter. Nature of nuclear forces was explained above too. Nuclei construction is rather complex process because many extra particles interfere in process. But it doesn’t differ from construction of electron shell in generally. We will consider some specific aspects of nuclei structure. It is not a secret that all nuclei obey the law of radioactive decay: …. It means that amount of particles, which decay for the certain period of time, is in proportion to the initial amount of particles. Let’s turn to chemistry, consider entropy formula more carefully and explain its meaning. S is the function of state. It is measure of irregularity of certain system. Boltzmann showed that entropy S depends on the amount of different microscopic ways of implementation of concrete macroscopic certain observable situation. If amount of equivalent ways of implementation of some situation is equal to the W, than entropy is proportional to logarithm of W. This formula is correct in chemistry, where K= R/N (R is universal gas constant, N is Avogadro number), and it must be correct in physics too, of course, subject to another coefficient. And law of radioactive decay affirms it. Here is one more quotation. “Statistic interpretation of second law of thermodynamics. Increasing of entropy means transition of the system from less probable to more probable conditions. Second principle of thermodynamics, being a static law, describes laws and regularities of chaotic motion (and space location too) of great amount of particles, composing closed system (for example nucleus of atom or electron shell)”. *3 Words in brackets were added by author.
Alpha radiation and tunneling effect.
Let’s consider tunneling effect according to the equivalence of its modern conceptions to the principle of continuity. Probability of tunneling effect is about 10-20. Here is the explanation of this effect from textbook. “Of course, it is very insignificant value (meaning is underlined), but if we take into account that alpha-particles collide with walls of the nucleus 1020 times per second, than probability of infiltration through Coulomb barrier is about 1”. *(6)
It is very disputable explanation. What walls can the nucleus have? What is the reason for moving of alpha-particle inside the nucleus? Why doesn’t nucleus emit permanently, if alpha-particles move?
Pay your attention that there is no necessity to explain tunneling effect in our case, because the method, which explains arrangement of likely charged particles near each other, itself assumes energetic unsymmetry. Why does exactly alpha-particle fly out? I remind that helium nucleus is a tetrahedral unification of two protons and two neutrons. Such consolidation is the most rigid and stable.
I think that arrangement of nucleons in outer layers of electron shells initially looks tetrahedrally. Nucleons try to fill the space in nucleus building the shells in the form of regular polyhedrons. Examples for cube and octahedron and for cube and icosahedron are on the picture.
Compare positions of vertexes of icosahedron and dodecahedron, if their centers coincide but radiuses of circumcircles insignificantly differ. Aggregation will be almost tetrahedral in case of certain radius difference. So it will require for the minimal energy for its changing.
I remind that icosahedron is a consolidation of 20 tetrahedrons. It is explanation of Magicness of nucleus with such amount of electrons.
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