Magnetic susceptibility of different substances
Let’s talk about properties of ferromagnetics. We know that atom of Fe contains 26 electrons; atom of Ni contains 28 electrons. Let’s draw our attention at the fact that it is possible to place 6 and 8 electrons in 20 cells in vertexes of regular polyhedron. So we can make the following conclusion. Under influence of outer magnetic field electron shells of certain chemical elements take a shape of regular polyhedrons, orient as is showed on the picture and begin to rotate, which requires for more considerable expenditures of time and energy.
Atoms of Fe orient electron shells, which keep rotation (showed with green color) after disappearance of magnetic field. Thermal motion breaks this process only after the reaching the certain level of temperature (Curie point).
Nickel atoms orient as is showed on the picture below and keep their magnetization too during rotation.
Now becomes clear huge magnetizability of iron-nickel alloy in certain proportion.
Probable picture of unification of electron shells in case of magnetization of iron-nickel alloy. Electrons of 27Co divide by the same way that is 26 + 28.
Explanation was rather simple. Other theories base on existence of domains in spite of fact that there are no reasons for their appearance in ferromagnetics. And domains don’t correspond to any crystallographic structures and they weren’t discovered in any crystallographic experiments.
These space conformations and orientations of electron shells are impossible for the overwhelming majority of other chemical elements. It results in paramagnetic and diamagnetic properties of the matter.
Structure of atoms and new theory of chemical bond resulted from it.
It is time to consider in details the structure of atoms of chemical elements. Structure of hydrogen was described before. And structure of elements of three initial periods shouldn’t provoke extra questions. Let’s repeat our base conceptions.
Electrons do not rotate around the nucleus but concentrically occupy areas of space around it. Multiplication factor of full electron shells of atom is explained by the principle of continuity, which in this case means the following.
Electron region takes such shape which fills the least volume of space and tries to spread in it evenly as possible. Spherical area divided into 8 parts satisfies this requirement in case of few electrons.
Now there is no necessity in theory of hybridization of orbitals and in orbitals too. Cause of equivalence of all chemical bonds and symmetry of their location around the center in case of such molecules as … becomes clear. Phenomena of space isomerism and allotropy become clear too.
Let’s consider the theory of chemical bonds based on this conception of atom structure. There are only two obvious ways of formation of the molecules. But both ways become possible only if there are vacancies in electron shell of reagents. You can make an objection that all atoms, except inert gases, have vacancies. Why don’t two atoms of beryllium, for example, unite in molecule? I want to remind that all our conclusions are based on the principle of continuity, and as follows from this principle, process of filling of vacancies must continue up to the end. Here is process of formation of oxygen molecule, for example.
Picture provides insight into one of the possible types of chemical bonds. Let’s name it the vacant bond (V-V).
Second type occurs when one of the reagents has oversized vacant area. Electrons of this reagent look like elevations on the surface of the atom. Let’s call them peaks. And these peaks will fill vacant places of the second reacting atom. And according to the principle of continuity peaks will fill all vacancies of the atom.
Let’s name this bond the vacant-peak bond (V-P).
Here is example of more complex molecule.
Now becomes clear why sulfuric acid keeps its integrity in case of substitution of hydrogen atoms with other atoms. Vacant (V-V) bond between oxygen atoms acts here the special part. Power of this acid can be explained too. You can see that outer electron layer is given up to vacant areas of other atoms. Let’s draw this picture one more time to show reasons of uniting of two and more molecules of sulfuric acid.
Here are more examples. The first of them is molecule of methane.
Let’s return to the one of the simplest molecules. Water will look like on the picture.
You may think that two vacant places attract each other. But it isn’t so. Electrons of the first atom occupy the vacant zone of the second one and vice versa. Our designations are used for simplicity, so don’t forget about their sketchy character.
Picture 1. Hydrogen atoms use only their peaks.
Picture 3. One hydrogen atom uses only peak, but other uses peak and vacancy.
Picture 2. Both atoms use peaks and vacancies.
It is clear that vacant bond is stronger than vacant-peak one, because it consists of two vacant-peak bonds.
There were invented a great amount of hybridizations and polycentric bonds to explain variety of water properties. But now, I think, everything becomes clear after looking at the picture.
We had to put into operation new signs for vacancies to present molecules by the instrumentality of formulae. We kept for peaks old signs, which were used earlier for electrons. For example nitric acid looks like this.
Hydrogen atom is substituted in the first place as in case of sulfuric acid. Other bonds are considerably stronger.
We showed uselessness of conception of orbital hybridization. Let’s disprove the idea of polycentric chemical bonds. I want to do it using the example of boron hydrides. Boron has 3 peaks and 5 vacancies. Molecules of diborane and tetraborane-10 will look like this.
Location of electrons around the nucleus gives us possibility to understand the amount of possible associated atoms. In addition it enables recognition of geometric disposition of atoms in molecule.
Bonds between atoms of boron are vacant; bonds between atoms of boron and hydrogen are vacant-peak.
We can easy show structure of other boron hydrides without using conception of polycentric bonds.
Bond directions conform to our base, which has form of spatial frameworks (regular polyhedrons).
We can clearly show structure of benzol molecule, in spite of fact that there is no understandable representation of this molecule until now.
You can think that inventing of new designation is an unnecessary complication. But above example with benzol was to make you change your mind. Advantages of new system of signs become apparent in case of considering coordination compounds. Early these compounds were described by the instrumentality of empirical formulae, which doesn’t grant clear description of the way of molecules’ connection in the atom. And there is no possibility to explain some different complexes by means of conception of valences.
Here is the example of three complex compounds of platinum. It is worth mention that there may be up to 20 vacancies in outer electron shell of atoms from long periods. So 78Pt has 8 vacancies (there are 8 elements to the end of the period).
Here are three empirical formulae of complex compounds of platinum.
Let’s show real junction of atoms in molecules by the instrumentality of our method.
Formulae of two other compounds look similarly.
But formula isn’t right in this case. It looks like here.
Now, I hope you understand the necessity of new system of signs, because they are more correct. Here is example of ion of cobalt.
Being in school I asked myself: “Why do so called functional groups move from one compound to another without alterations, but not break up into parts?” now I can answer this question. Almost every bond in such groups is vacant. Here are examples of functional groups and types of atom junctions in these groups.
Here are two most abundant functional groups. We’ll show them by the instrumentality of formula and picture.
It is very important, which type of chemical bond is between atom of hydrogen and any other atom. In case of vacant-peak (V-P) bond, vacant area remains unused and produces hydrogen bond. It is also the reason of molecule deformation. Vacant (positively charged) areas repulse from each other and this process results in changing of angles of atom orientation relative to the center (water, for example). In case of vacant (V-V) bond hydrogen atom uses electron and vacancy.
Type of the bond depends on the amount of electrons, which second atom doesn’t use for the bond formation. If there are many electrons (in case of water or halogen hydrides), than bond is vacant-peak (V-P). The same bond forms if other atom has no electron for filling the vacancy of hydrogen (in case of sulfuric and nitric acid).
Sometimes atoms change types of bond during the chemical reaction. He most obvious example is below.
Nitrogen substitutes peak bond type for vacant bond type in case of ammonium ion formation (marked out with frame). The same thing happens with hydrogen atoms. Reasons are described above.
We can affirm that only such changes are possible for atoms of three initial periods. For the elements with greater amount of electrons (more than 20) process of changing value of vacancy is possible.
In one case it is equal to 8 minus amount of electrons, which exceed the limit of 20, 50.
In other case it is equal to the amount of electrons of the last element in period after deduction of the amount of electrons of considering element. In case of iron it is 2 = 8- (26-20) or 10 = 36-26. This variability becomes a reason of inventing theories of chemical bonds in coordination compounds.
Our new theory is substantiated synthesis of previous theories, explaining reasons of spatial orientation of electric interactions between different atoms.
Let’s speak about coordination compounds. Now it is considered that color is a result of moving of electron from one allowed orbit to another. If it is true, than amount of electrons, which move from one orbit to another must gradually decrease. This process is analogous to photocurrent of saturation, when increasing of illumination doesn’t results in increasing of photocurrent. So compound should change its color. But it doesn’t occur, as we know from experiments. Therefore such conclusion is false.
In truth, color is determinated by the frequency of electron rotation in atoms of absorbent. And such rotation can last infinitely.
Let’s produce some probable examples of location of electrons in electron shells by periods. But it may not be true that all is really so.
1st period – 2 electrons occupy hemispherical areas
2nd period – 2 electrons on inner shell and 8 electrons, which divide spherical area, on outer shell
3rd period – 2 + 8 electrons inside + 8 electrons outside (dividing of the sphere is the same)
4th period – 8 electrons inside + 20 electrons on the middle level + 8 electrons outside
5th period – 6 electrons + 20 + 20 + 8 per level beginning with inner level
6th period – 8 electrons inside + 20 + 50 + 8 per level.
It is worth mentioned that amount of electrons in period can increase and decrease.
It depends on total energy of all electrons in atom (it must be minimal), of the positions of the electrons in shell (arrangement should be the most symmetric as possible or coincide with regular polyhedron).
Explanation of real arrangement of electrons in atom is the task of spatial combinatorial analysis, but I have no enough knowledge to explain all correct. Of course we need more information about every chemical element in addition to mathematical methods. For example liquidity of the mercury suggests that all its electron shells are regular polyhedrons (20+20+20+20 or 2+8+20+50). Let’s consider molecule of bromine as indirect corroboration. There are 70 (20+50) electrons in its electron shells and it is a liquid too.
But I won’t agree that outer configuration of the electrons of the aurum and argentum is analogous to the configurations of lithium, sodium, potassium and other alkali metals in spite of all mathematic contrivances. I can’t believe that inner electron configuration of lead for example consists of “puff pastry” with such arrangement: 2, 2+6, 2+6 and etc. Such configuration means that inner electrons don’t influence on outer ones, and vise versa.
I hope that even students group can calculate electrons’ arrangement for every atom, using the principle of continuity and my tips.
In addition to the above I want supplement my reasonings about impact of catalyst. Most probably that catalyst temporarily gives electrons to reagents for rearrangement of its electron shells, which promotes faster leaking of chemical reactions. Heating of reagents results in the same process too. I think it is possible to replace both processes even if partially. Influence of electromagnetic fields and electron irradiation or pull-off of electrons using electromagnetic way can make the processes of chemical manufacturing considerably cheaper.
Let’s pay attention at fact that we created new theory of chemical bonds in coordination compounds. It doesn’t differ from theory of simple compounds (it is a great advantage) and it is more understandable and probable than all previous theories (electrostatic theory, valency theory, crystal field theory and ligands field theory), and it is the second great advantage.
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