Atom emission spectrum
 


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Atom emission spectrum discreteness

Now it is time for explanation of atom emission spectrum discreteness. When atom receives energy from without it begins to rotate, transforming into dipole. In truth atom isn’t dipole only in case of absolute zero.

How does atom lose its energy in kind of emission?

Rotation of atom results in rotation of bions. But frequency of emission (frequency of bions’ rotation) depends on coincidence of atom’s and bion’s unlike charges.

Let’s explain why only rotation of atom can result is emission. We know that frequency of atom emission is constant for every spectrum line. If emission is a result of spatial oscillation of atom, then frequency depends on density of atom location. But it contradicts the results of the experiment. There is no way for oscillation of one isolated atom except its rotation.

In truth almost all energy atoms receive from rotating bions.

Let’s try to explain schematically dependence of atom emission frequency, expressed in Balmer’s formula. Energy of rotating body is described thought the instrumentality of this formula …. Energy of bion’s rotation is explained thought the instrumentality of this one ….

The first condition. In case of emission energy of rotation, returned by electron, must be equal to energy, which bion receives.

The second condition. One revolution of electron can result in whole number of bions’ rotations and vice versa. Only whole number of bions’ rotations can result in one rotation of electron (look in the previous picture). Otherwise negative charge of a bion will stop electron’s rotation. It is the real reason of discreteness of emission and absorption spectrums.

Coincidence of bion’s rotation energy and electron’s energy results in absorption. Absorbed energy is equal to the difference of rotation energies for different amounts of electron’s revolutions.

In details. For example electron rotates with frequency of 5 revolutions per second. In order to increase velocity of its rotation till 6 revolutions per second, electron must receive energy, which is equal to ….

Bion rotating with frequency … can give such energy.

Difference between initial and final energies of electron can be spent on emission.

Red zone on the picture is the zone of near location of the lines.

When frequency of bion’s rotation becomes equal to frequency of electron’s rotation, further increasing of one frequency lets to the increasing of other one. It is zone of continuous high-frequency emission. By the way existence of this zone wasn’t explained early. It was supposed that energy stopped to quantize in this zone.

Let’s take a good look at influence of electromagnetic waves on the matter.

Long waves generally are reflected from obstacles; therefore their contact with atom can’t result in rotating of electron around the nucleus.

Infrared radiation lets to the heating of matter. When thermal equilibrium is reached, frequency of electron rotation becomes aliquot to the frequency of emission. But rotating electron becomes a source of emission. Of course, frequency of its emission will be equal to frequency of initial emission. Therefore heating emission is always equilibrium.

Let’s increase frequency of initial emission. Then frequency of rotation of electron around nucleus will increase too. So electron can leave atom under the gravitation effect. Loss of contact is possible in case of reaching of certain energy (photoemission threshold).

Let’s look at explanation of this phenomenon in quantum mechanic. Photon moves with the velocity of light and hits the electron. If photon has enough impulse (that is energy, which depends on frequency) it kicks electron out of atom.

But photon’s impulse is opposite to the impulse of flying out electron. It contradicts with momentum conservation law.

Let’s increase frequency one more time. All will be as usual. Rotation of a bion will result in rotation of electron in the atomic shell. A part of energy of initial emission will be spent on this rotation. Therefore component with increased wave length will appear in diffuse radiation. This is our description of Compton effect.

Let’s look at its explanation in textbooks. Compton effect is elastic scattering of short-wave electromagnetic radiation (roentgen radiation and gamma radiation) on free (or loosely coupled) electrons of matter, following of increasing of wave length.

Calculation is based on using the momentum conservation law. Let’s consider process of collision of photons and electrons. If we use momentum conservation law then we need to take sizes of colliding particles into account, because angle of their throwout after colliding depends on it. We can’t take photon and electron for mass points in such processes. It is worth mentioned that photon energy is greater than electron’s energy. Here is the picture.

 

Angle of throwout of photons and electrons will be different for every single photon and electron. But it isn’t corroborated by experiment.

There is one more way for check of corpuscular qualities. This way was used for careful studying of interference. It is necessary to set Geiger counter on the way of scattered ray and check its functionality.

I think, that Compton effect is particular case of reflection law with free electron as mirror. Electron will receive energy under the influence of bions’ rotation, and loss of the energy by bion will result in change of rotation frequency (mirror will begin to move).

We can easily explain effects of nonlinear optics by the instrumentality of our method too.

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